Gujarat is a state in Western India, It has an area of 196,024 km with a coastline of 1,600 km, most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is the native place to the Gujarati-speaking people of India.
The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, and during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era.
Gujarat is also known as "The Land of The Legends" and "Jewel of Gujrat"
Gujarat was one of the main centres of the Indus Valley Civilization. It contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was where India's first port was established. The ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat.
The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt, Bahrain and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and then the Chaulukyas.
In the year 1960, the people of Gujarat decided to form a new state for themselves. This led to the partition and formation of two new states Gujarat and Maharashtra. On May 1, 1960 Gujarat was declared an independent state of the Indian Union. The first capital of the newly found state of Gujarat was Ahmedabad. But, in the year 1970, it was shifted to Gandhinagar. Today, Gujarat has transformed into one of the sought-after tourist destination of India.
Language And Culture
Gujarat is inhabited by people belonging to varied castes, religions and communities. Due to that, a number of varied languages are spoken in the state. The official language of the state is Gujarati. It is an Indo-Aryan language derived from Sanskrit. Gujarati is the 26th-most widely spoken language in the world. Surti, charotari, kathiawai and kutchi languages are among the many others languages like Marathi, Sindhi, Punjabi etc. are spoken in Gujarat regions.
Gujarat which derives its name from the term 'Gujjar Rashtra' constitutes a culture which is formed out of mingling of diverse ethnic folks. The flourishing state of Gujarat with its cultural diversity forms an integral part of the Indian culture and has long been harboring both, the indigenous and foreign traditions. The Gujarati culture is an amalgamation of a plethora of traditions, beliefs, customs, arts, values with a tinge modernization as well. All these constituent tribes and communities form a confluence that renders an enriched and versatile Guajarati culture which is evident in the state's distinctive dance styles, festivals, lifestyle and its cuisine.
Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica)
Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus)
1.Kankaria Lake 2.Laxmi Vilas Palace
3.Rani ki Vav (the Queen's Stepwell)
5.Marine National Park
How to Reach
Gujarat has the most number of domestic airports than any other states of India, there are seventeen airports altogether (including the State Civil Aviation Board). The international airport is the Sardar Vallabhbhai International Airport in Ahmedabad. The daily and weekly operating flights in and out of Gujarat are easily accessible in Surat, Bhagvanagar, Junagarh, Vadodara, Rajkot, Bhuj and many other parts of the state. Famous Airlines like the Jet Airways, Spice, India airlines and more connect you to other major cities, mainly New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
Gujarat, within the state as well as outside is linked very well through the railways. It comes under the Western Railway Zone of the Indian Railways and consists of many railway stations. However, the busiest railway station of them all is the Vadodara Railway Station as it lies on the Mumbai - Delhi Mainline. Some other important railway stations are: Surat Railway Station, Ahmedabad Railway Station and Rajkot Railway Station. Super fast trains run on a regular basis connecting Ahmedabad to Mumbai and Delhi.
Gujarat is known for the best roadways in the Western India, consisting of several two to four lane highways. The roadway network connects to the entire country. Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation is the main service outlet of buses and other public transportation, within the state and to the other states in India. The buses are accordingly rated on the basis of the comfort and price, ranging from the air- conditioned coaches to a simple and old one. The car travelers are going to fall in love with the highways of Gujarat.